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ICRP Publication 101: Assessing Dose of the Representative Person for the Purpose of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Optimisation of ... Commission on Radiological Protection)
Assessing dose of the representative person forthe purpose of radiation protection of the publicThe Commission intended that its revised recommendations should be based on asimple, but widely applicable, system of protection that would clarify its objectives and providea basis for the more formal systems needed by operating managers and regulators....
Assessing dose of the representative person forthe purpose of radiation protection of the publicThe Commission intended that its revised recommendations should be based on asimple, but widely applicable, system of protection that would clarify its objectives and providea basis for the more formal systems needed by operating managers and regulators. Therecommendations would establish quantified constraints, or limits, on individual dose fromspecified sources. These dose constraints apply to actual or representative people whoencounter occupational, medical, and public exposures. This report updates the previousguidance for estimating dose to the public. Dose to the public cannot be measured directlyand, in some cases, it cannot be measured at all. Therefore, for the purpose of protection of thepublic, it is necessary to characterise an individual, either hypothetical or specific, whose dosecan be used for determining compliance with the relevant dose constraint. This individual isdefined as the 'representative person'. The Commission's goal of protection of the public isachieved if the relevant dose constraint for this individual for a single source is met andradiological protection is optimised.This report explains the process of estimating annual dose and recognises that a number ofdifferent methods are available for this purpose. These methods range from deterministiccalculations to more complex probabilistic techniques. In addition, a mixture of these techniquesmay be applied. In selecting characteristics of the representative person, three importantconcepts should be borne in mind: reasonableness, sustainability, and homogeneity. Eachconcept is explained and examples are provided to illustrate their roles. Doses to the public areprospective (may occur in the future) or retrospective (occurred in the past). Prospective dosesare for hypothetical individuals who may or may not exist in the future, while retrospectivedoses are generally calculated for specific individuals.The Commission recognises that the level of detail afforded by its provision of dose coefficientsfor six age categories is not necessary in making prospective assessments of dose, giventhe inherent uncertainties usually associated with estimating dose to the public and withidentification of the representative person. It now recommends the use of three age categoriesfor estimating annual dose to the representative person for prospective assessments. Thesecategories are 0-5 years (infant), 6-15 years (child), and 16-70 years (adult). For practicalimplementation of this recommendation, dose coefficients and habit data for a 1-year-oldinfant, a 10-year-old child, and an adult should be used to represent the three age categories.In a probabilistic assessment of dose, whether from a planned facility or an existing situation,the Commission recommends that the representative person should be defined such thatthe probability is less than about 5% that a person drawn at random from the population willreceive a greater dose. If such an assessment indicates that a few tens of people or more couldreceive doses above the relevant constraint, the characteristics of these people need to beexplored. If, following further analysis, it is shown that doses to a few tens of people are indeedlikely to exceed the relevant dose constraint, actions to modify the exposure should be considered.The Commission recognises the role that stakeholders can play in identifying characteristicsof the representative person. Involvement of stakeholders can significantly improve thequality, understanding, and acceptability of the characteristics of the representative personand the resulting estimated dose.The optimisation of radiological protection: Broadening the processThe principle of optimisation of radiation protection is defined by the Commissionas the source-related process to keep the magnitude of individual doses, the number of peopleexposed, and the likelihood of potential exposure as low as reasonably achievable below theappropriate dose constraints, with economic and social factors being taken into account.According to the revised recommendations of ICRP, this process of optimisation belowconstraint should be applied whatever the exposure situation; i.e. planned, emergency, andexisting.The previous recommendations for the practical implementation of the optimisation processare still valid. It must be implemented through an ongoing, cyclical process that involves theevaluation of the exposure situation to identify the need for action, the identification of thepossible protective options to keep the exposure as low as reasonably achievable, the selectionof the best option under the prevailing circumstances, the implementation of the selected optionthrough an effective optimisation programme, and regular review of the exposure situation toevaluate if the prevailing circumstances call for the implementation of corrective protectiveactions. However, the way in which the optimisation process should be implemented is nowviewed more broadly to reflect the increasing role of individual equity, safety culture, andstakeholder involvement in our modern societies.This report is a consolidation and an evolution of the Commission's recommendationsconcerning the optimisation principle. After some background information on the foundationand evolution of the principle, this report describes the main characteristics of the process,addresses the issue of exposure distribution in that process, and provides the basic requirementsfor its application in operation and regulation. A description of decision-aiding techniquescommonly used for practical implementation of the optimisation process is provided inAnnex A.
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