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Fundamentals of High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy
Physical and chemical properties of substances depend on the arrangement of the constituent atoms. This is especially the case for many advanced materials like metals and alloys, semiconductors, ceramics etc. Therefore, the analysis of the atomic arrangement, which is called structure analysis, is a starting point to clarify the origin of their functions....
Physical and chemical properties of substances depend on the arrangement of the constituent atoms. This is especially the case for many advanced materials like metals and alloys, semiconductors, ceramics etc. Therefore, the analysis of the atomic arrangement, which is called structure analysis, is a starting point to clarify the origin of their functions. The structure analysis of crystalline substances has been performed for a long time mainly by means of x-ray or neutron diffraction, which enables us to determine an "average structure" with high accuracy. However, many kinds of lattice defects like vacancies, dislocations, stacking faults, twins, grain boundaries etc, often included in "real crystals", govern the functional properties of so-called structure-sensitive materials. According to recent high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) the atomic arrangement can be uniquely analyzed, not only in perfect crystals but also in imperfect crystal. At present it is widely used as a powerful technique for analyzing microstructures in many advanced materials. An HRTEM image is formed by two processes; in the first process incident electrons are scattered by a specimen substance, while in the second process the scattered electrons are refracted by an electron lens to form an image. In order to extract the correct information from an HRTEM image, therefore, it is necessary to understand the two processes exactly. The main purpose of this book is to show the fundamental concept on the principles of HRTEM and how to utilize it. In chapters 2 and 3 of this book two important mechanical constituents of TEM, electron lens and electron gun, are summarized. In chapters 4 to 7 the optical and electron-optical theories on the formation of a HRTEM image are described. In chapter 8 some practical procedures for observing and analyzing images are shown. In chapter 9 some experimental data for analyzing high T-c superconductive materials are presented to demonstrate how the HRTEM is applied to real problems and how the results obtained serve in materials science.
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