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This volume provides the first comprehensive look at a pivotal new technology in integrated circuit fabrication. For some time researchers have sought alternate processes for interconnecting the millions of transistors on each chip because conventional physical vapor deposition can no longer meet the specifications of today's complex integrated circuits....
This volume provides the first comprehensive look at a pivotal new technology in integrated circuit fabrication. For some time researchers have sought alternate processes for interconnecting the millions of transistors on each chip because conventional physical vapor deposition can no longer meet the specifications of today's complex integrated circuits. Out of this research, ionized physical vapor deposition has emerged as a premier technology for the deposition of thin metal films that form the dense interconnect wiring on state-of-the-art microprocessors and memory chips. For the first time, the most recent developments in thin film deposition using ionized physical vapor deposition (I-PVD) are presented in a single coherent source. Readers will find detailed descriptions of relevant plasma source technology, specific deposition systems, and process recipes. The tools and processes covered include DC hollow cathode magnetrons, RF inductively coupled plasmas, and microwave plasmas that are used for depositing technologically important materials such as copper, tantalum, titanium, TiN, and aluminum. In addition, this volume describes the important physical processes that occur in I-PVD in a simple and concise way. The physical descriptions are followed by experimentally-verified numerical models that provide in-depth insight into the design and operation I-PVD tools. Practicing process engineers, research and development scientists, and students will find that this book's integration of tool design, process development, and fundamental physical models make it an indispensable reference. Key Features: The first comprehensive volume on ionized physical vapor depositionCombines tool design, process development, and fundamental physical understanding to form a complete picture of I-PVD Emphasizes practical applications in the area
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